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On the History of Rock Music

Yvetta Kajanová

On the History of Rock Music follows the development of rock music from its origins up to the present time. It focuses on the relationship between the sound, improvisations and rhythms in particular styles, and gives specific attention to the development of rhythm. The beat-offbeat principle, polyrhythms and polymetrics are fundamental to rock rhythm patterns, which serve as archetypes for specific rhythms. An archetype is a prototype, a model, or an innate experience of a species. Using more than 250 score examples, the author identifies the characteristic rhythmic patterns in rock styles, ranging from rock and roll, hard rock and punk rock to alternative rock, indie rock and grind core.
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Heavy Metal

← 92 | 93 → Heavy Metal


. Critics reviewing the band’s albums considered the fourth, Led Zeppelin IV (1971), as an influential heavy metal album. However, rock historians, questioned this belief and came to the conclusion that elements of the heavy metal style had already emerged in the late 1980s when listeners’ interests were still centred around hard rock. In the early stages, heavy metal expressed a paranoid nihilism which was, at that time, in contrast with the hippies’ tenacious message of “peace and love”. In the song “Paranoid” (Vertigo, 1970), Ozzy Osbourne of Black Sabbath47 sings: “Happiness I cannot feel and love to me is so unreal …” Heavy metal bands differed from others mainly by their morbid “poetic” texts with “satanic” symbols including heaven, hell, the devil, death, candles, mass, ritual, good, evil, depression, self-destruction (“kill yourself”), violence, alcohol, drugs and sex. Strangely enough, heavy metal critics sometimes describe these occult elements as “heavy metal poetry” or, in slow compositions, as “lyrical”.

Further historical facts have led to a re-evaluation of heavy metal music development. In 1967, the band Steppenwolf recorded the song “Born to Be Wild” (by Mars Bonfire) with the lyrics including the phrase “heavy metal thunder”. Up until the present day, the song has been an anthem of heavy metal and of motorcycle clubs. In 1968, the band Blue Cheer recorded a heavy metal version of Eddie Cochran’s hit “Summertime Blues” (1958) with the contemporary pop ditty structure being changed into vigorous dynamics and aggressive rhythmic patterns. The history of heavy...

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