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is not a clearly defined rock style and the term does not consistently mean the same type of music. Amongst the journalists and musicians interviewed by Melody Maker and New Musical Express magazines, hard core was regarded as a fusion of heavy metal and punk rock music. The merging of the two styles began after the first wave of punk rock and the punk concert bans at the turn of the 1970s and 1980s, and was evident in the music of those bands originally regarded as strictly punk rock. Hard core was a reaction to the commercialisation of heavy metal and punk rock at the end of the 1970s when heavy metal and punk rock bands tied themselves to the large corporate labels and turned away from their original ideals. The hard core style originated in northern USA and laid the grounds for future speed metal and thrash metal. Most hard core bands never achieved true commercial success and remained in the underground; however some managed to enter into mainstream rock music and featured in rock magazines51.
Hard core bands include Black Flag52 (California, 1976); Dead Kennedys (who started as a punk rock band in 1978 but shifted to hard core in the 1980s); Fear (1977, Los Angeles, considered to be a typical model of the hard core style; this band appeared on Saturday Night Live in 1981 and recorded an LP The Record in 1982); Circle Jerks; and Hüsker Dü (1978, USA, originally a hard core...
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