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Die Konkretisierung und Durchsetzung internationaler Menschenrechte durch Entwicklungsmaßnahmen der Weltbank und der Internationalen Finanz-Corporation

Series:

Felicitas Berning

Internationale Entwicklungsorganisationen geraten häufig in die Kritik, weil von ihnen erwartet wird, dass sie bei ihren Entscheidungen politische, insbesondere menschenrechtliche Aspekte einbeziehen. Die größten Entwicklungsorganisationen, Weltbank und Internationale Finanz-Corporation, enthalten jedoch bereits in ihrer Satzung ein ausdrückliches Verbot, Entscheidungen aufgrund politischer Erwägungen zu treffen. Die Arbeit untersucht, ob und inwieweit Weltbank und Internationale Finanz-Corporation dennoch durch interne Richtlinien und die Kontrolle ihrer Anwendung zur völkerrechtlichen Normbildung im Bereich der Menschenrechte beitragen. Dabei werden internationale Umweltrechte, Arbeitsrechte und Menschenrechte von Frauen berücksichtigt.
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Ausgewählte Richtlinien

← 232 | I → Ausgewählte Richtlinien

Extract

January, 1999 (revised April 2012)

1. The Bank requires environmental assessment (EA) of projects proposed for Bank financing to help ensure that they are environmentally sound and sustainable, and thus to improve decision making.

2. EA is a process whose breadth, depth, and type of analysis depend on the nature, scale, and potential environmental impact of the proposed project. EA evaluates a project’s potential environmental risks and impacts in its area of influence; examines project alternatives; identifies ways of improving project selection, siting, planning, design, and implementation by preventing, minimizing, mitigating, or compensating for adverse environmental impacts and enhancing positive impacts; and includes the process of mitigating and managing adverse environmental impacts throughout project implementation. The Bank favors preventive measures over mitigatory or compensatory measures, whenever feasible.

3. EA takes into account the natural environment (air, water, and land); human health and safety; social aspects (involuntary resettlement, indigenous peoples, and physical cultural resources); and transboundary and global environmental aspects. EA considers natural and social aspects in an integrated way. It also takes into account the variations in project and country conditions; the findings of country environmental studies; national environmental action plans; the country’s overall policy framework, national legislation, and institutional capabilities related to the environment and social aspects; and obligations of the country, pertaining to project activities, under relevant international environmental treaties and agreements. The Bank does not finance project activities that would contravene such country obligations, as identified during the EA. EA is...

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