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Die Landesheil- und Pflegeanstalt Tiegenhof

Die nationalsozialistische "Euthanasie</I> in Polen während des Zweiten Weltkrieges

Series:

Enno Schwanke

Die Studie beleuchtet in ihrer Analyse die Geschehnisse an der einstigen polnischen Anstalt Dziekanka, die ab 1939 mit der Einnahme durch die deutsche Wehrmacht in Tiegenhof umbenannt und zunehmend zu einer Tötungsanstalt umfunktioniert wurde. Auf Grundlage von Zeugenaussagen und Strafermittlungsakten aus dem Bundesarchiv Ludwigsburg werden die Geschehnisse in Tiegenhof von 1939 bis 1945 rekonstruiert und gleichzeitig ein Schlaglicht auf die Anfänge der nationalsozialistischen Euthanasie geworfen. Die Studie weist nach, dass der frühe Patientenmord im Reichsgau Wartheland wesentlich durch das gaueigene SS-Sonderkommando Lange, eine eigene Euthanasie-Zentrale und den überzeugten Nationalsozialisten und Reichsstatthalter Arthur Greiser bedingt war.
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Abstract

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This pioneering analysis uses one psychiatric asylum as a case study in order to outline the structure of National Socialist “euthanasia” in occupied Poland. The Second World War was characterized by the mass destruction of human lives. One of the systematic extermination programs targeted people who were labeled as mentally or physically ill. In occupied Poland alone, at least 26.000 people were killed as a part of the so-called “euthanasia” program, about 15.000 of them before 1942.

This work sheds light on events in the originally Polish asylum Dziekanka, renamed Tiegenhof and transformed into a murder facility after the German occupation in 1939. On the basis of testimonies and criminal records from the German Federal Archives in Ludwigsburg, the developments in Tiegenhof between 1939 and 1945 are reconstructed as a case study on the early phase of the national socialist “euthanasia”. Whereas the six murder facilities that were part of the T4 program (Grafeneck, Brandenburg, Hartheim, Pirna-Sonnenstein, Bernburg, Hadamar) commenced their murdering in gas chambers gradually from January 1940, most patients in the psychiatric asylums in occupied Poland had already been killed at that point.

It is shown that the local occupation government with its committed National Socialist Reichsstatthalter (governor) Arthur Greiser and the SS-Sonderkommando Lange were key perpetrators in the early patient murders in the “Reichsgau Wartheland”. Furthermore, transports to and the different phases of the murder program at Tiegenhof are reconstructed. In focus, apart from the structure of the “Reichsgau Wartheland”, are...

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