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Challenges to Representative Democracy

A European Perspective


Edited By Robert Wiszniowski

Using different perspectives and various approaches, this collection of diagnostic texts aims at presenting all the possible faces of the contemporary Nation-State. Based on political science methodology, this volume is devoted to both theory and practice. The structure of the book is unconventional. The issues presented are extremely contextual, subject to an ongoing discussion and mostly unpredictable. From the scientific point of view, the territorial differentiation in the traditional uniform of the Nation-State is simply reconfigured and reshaped due to the new logic of internal market competition.
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The enclaves of Europe: the case of the Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation


Arkadiusz Żukowski & Marcin Chełminiak

Univerisity of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland

International bipolar system was replaced by less stable multipolar system with new centers of power after the disintegration of the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union some analysts described world as a unipolar, others as a multi-polar. In authors’ opinion both are wrong, because in military power terms, world can be called as a unipolar, but in economic power terms, worlds is multipolar. When we analyze modern world, we should not forget about new centers of power, non-state power, like transnational corporations, terrorists and hackers.

The geopolitical system of Europe has also changed radically since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The stability in the Baltic Sea Region must be understood in economic and social terms and then finally also in terms of security policy. The Baltic Sea countries have been building up a network of cooperation since 1989. This network includes: meetings between parliamentarians or ministerial conferences on the forum of the Baltic organizations: Council of the Baltic Sea States, Baltic Chambers of Commerce Association, Ars Baltica. This cooperation is not limited to the national governments. Provinces, lands and cities also cooperate between themselves. New conditions of international political order had an impact on foreign policies of the Baltic Sea states. Russian Federation has only two regions that have direct access to the Baltic Sea: Leningrad Region and Kaliningrad Region. The Baltic Sea area occupies an...

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