Edited By Adriana Mica, Jan Winczorek and Rafał Wiśniewski
Lineland and the Underground Economy: The Multidimensionality of Informal Work by Secondary Education Students
His subjects […] were all alike confined in motion and eye-sight to that single Straight Line, which was their World. It need scarcely be added that the whole of their horizon was limited to a Point; nor could anyone ever see anything but a Point. Man, woman, child, thing – each was a Point to the eye of a Linelander (Abbott 1884, 55).
Whenever states impose formal rules on people in a territory, noncompliance will occur. There is no empty set of underground activities in any given modern society. This is not to say that underground activities have a comparable frequency in different societies. The width and breadth of informal activities depends upon a number of socio-economic and personal characteristics. Apart from their pure sociological relevance, underground activities have a number of economic, political and social effects. For all these reasons, it is essential that the phenomenon is researched in a conceptually consistent and valid way.
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