From Hostility to Hospitality
From Translation to Re-Creation
In ‘Reforeignising The Foreign: The Italian Retranslation of James Joyce‘s Ulysses’, Rosa Maria Bollettieri and Ira Torresi described Ulysses as an ‘open work’.1 The two Italian Joycean scholars brought back to mind its well-earned name given by Brook Thomas in his 1982 study: ‘A book of many happy returns’.2 Quite rightly, generations of writers, greatly influenced by reading Joyce, produced many felicitous iterations of the Joycean intertext.
In twentieth-century Francophone Romania, where novelists were very fond of Proust and Gide, who offered a stylistic and thematic model alike, Joyce’s admirers were few and far between. Their main interest was in imitating Joyce’s interior monologue, or rather its admixture of free indirect style and third-person narration, as well as various narrative manipulations of time and duration. Ironically enough, the Romanian language cannot render Joyce’s narratorial ambiguity, since its Latin grammatical structure does not allow the sequence of tenses or the referent’s indeterminacy, especially in verb endings, which, unlike in English, are different for each person, thus making it impossible to keep the original’s deliberate pronominal indirections, to name but these structural mismatches between the two languages.
Experimenting with Authenticity: Mircea Eliade
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