The Teaching of the Ukrainian Language in Poland. Experience, Theory and Practice
1. General considerations
Polish citizens of Ukrainian origin (called here and after the Ukrainian minority) had found themselves in a very specific and unfavorable situation in Poland since 1947. After the forced resettlement of more than 140,000 people in so-called “ Wisła operation “, Ukrainians (Polish citizens) were settled throughout almost all territories of the north – western Polish border zone. Actually, the provinces in which this minority lives in the larger clusters are: Warmia and Masuria (warmińsko-mazurskie), Pomerania (pomorskie), West Pomerania (zachodniopomorskie), Lubusz (lubuskie), Lower Silesia (dolnośląskie), Lesser Poland (małopolskie), Subcarpathian (podkarpackie) and Podlaskie (podlaskie).
The official propaganda, in totalitarian communist state did not recognize or even accept the existence of any national minority in Poland, especially the Ukrainian minority Despite of this fact, it had been possible to create in Poland (beginning in 1952) residual foundations of education, in the form of several primary and secondary schools and to create a network of so-called teaching points of the Ukrainian language. However, they gave a very limited opportunity to learn their mother tongue. The determining factor for the Ukrainian minority after 1947 up to the present time has been the fact of its dispersing all over the country. Originally, such a dispersion was aimed onto the rapid assimilation of this community. This, as well as lasting throughout the whole postwar period, constant emigration of members of the Ukrainian community in Poland (both gainful and political) and rather reluctant attitude of...
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