The metaphor in feedback transfer in L2 acquisition (with some examples of the interaction between the Polish and Lithuanian languages)
Abstract The paper discusses the problem of a language error found in the process of foreign language acquisition which is referred to as feedback transfer and whose sources seem to have their origin in metaphoric extensions. We are dealing here with a subcategory of the lexical-semantic transfer to the user’s primary language which is characteristic of all L2 to L1 translation operations of that user. When one looks at the process of such transfers from a cognitive standpoint, one notices the process of transferring to the user’s L1 mistakenly identified and retrieved meanings of L2 lexemes, and the process is based upon certain mental “misses” with respect to the metaphoric extension or extensions of the meanings, or – in other words – the sense of the metaphor which a given lexeme implies. It is well known that in the process of L2 acquisition the lexemic stores of L1 and L2 are unavoidably asymmetric. The asymmetry of the mental storage is not only one of the causes of some L2 errors, but it can additionally start in the mind of a bilingual user certain cognitive processes which imply mistaken lexical activations leading to mistaken language use. Language errors in L2 translations often turn out to center around mistakenly identified metaphoric extensions, or they result from the fact that different conceptual patterns get activated during the translation process. L2 metaphoric senses are often hard to acquire because of the prevailing L1 conceptualizations, or in other words lexical-semantic categories internalized in the...