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German Communicative Development Inventory

An Adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory for Toddlers

Gisela Szagun, Barbara Stumper and Satyam Antonio Schramm

This research presents a German adaptation of the American MacArthur-Bates Commmunicative Inventory (CDI) for toddlers, with the addition of a detailed inflectional morphology scale. The name of the instrument is FRAKIS (Fragebogen zur frühkindlichen Sprachentwicklung). The research presents the first norm data of early language development for German-speaking children. Results of the study confirm the enormous variability in early language development found in other languages for German. There was also a strong relation between lexical and grammatical development, including between specific lexical and grammatical areas. The instrument FRAKIS is an excellent tool for assessing language level in young children, be it for research purposes or in clinical settings.
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About the author(s)/editor(s)


Gisela Szagun studied psychology at the London School of Economics. She was a lecturer at Technical University Berlin where she obtained her habilitation. She was professor of Developmental Psychology at Oldenburg University and is continuing her research as Emerita.

Barbara Stumper qualified and worked as speech and language therapist, then studied psychology at the University of Oldenburg. She obtained her Ph.D. at Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. She is currently Head of Therapeutic Services at Sprachheilzentrum Wilhelmshaven.

Satyam Antonio Schramm studied psychology at the University of Oldenburg and the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. He is assistant professor at the chair of Psychology for Special Needs Education at the University of Hannover.

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