Journalistic Culture in Poland, Russia and Sweden
Edited By Gunnar Nygren and Bogusława Dobek-Ostrowska
It is an unusually tightly focused volume that sheds much light on the values, roles and working conditions of these journalists in a revealing comparative perspective. It is a model of well-conceptualized and carefully conducted comparative cross-national journalism research.
David H. Weaver, Bloomington, Indiana University, USA
Journalism and commercialization
Analysis of the economic context of the mass media systems and finding a place for journalism and journalists in this environment is the main aim of this chapter. Today there is no doubt that media companies are part of the business world and they should accept the rules operative in this world. For this reason, the answers to these questions could help in this research process:
The research questions provoke the following hypothesis:
8.1 The media in pincers of profits
Until the 2000s, traditional communication research has not dedicated a lot of attention to the economy and economic context of the mass media (Doyle, 2002b:1), which were perceived as a fundamental element of the public and political sphere in the 19th and 20th centuries in Europe. Even if they belonged to private owners (as the print press), public and political interests were the most important and a discussion about economic profits was rarely undertaken. The process of the media industry’s formation was reinforced by a launch of private broadcasting media (or privatization of state TV and radio stations) in the 1970s and 1980s. In the 20th century, it was subsequently marked by the rapid ← 211 | 212 → development of the Internet and easy access to new communication technologies in the 1990s. Croteau and Hoynes claim that the 21st century began with a bang and noted:
“New Technologies are helping to transform the 21st century media...
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