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Journalism in Change

Journalistic Culture in Poland, Russia and Sweden


Edited By Gunnar Nygren and Bogusława Dobek-Ostrowska

Media developments change journalism all over the world. But are the changes the same in different media systems? How is professionalization influenced by the constant growth of a network society and social media? How are commercialization and political influences in the media relating to each other? These are some of the issues discussed in this study. It is based on the research project Journalism in Change – professional journalistic cultures in Poland, Russia and Sweden. From 2011 to 2014 researchers from Sweden, Poland and Russia at Södertörn University in Stockholm have been cooperating closely in order to survey a sample of 1500 journalists and 60 in depth interviews with journalists. The results are presented in a comparative design covering different areas.
It is an unusually tightly focused volume that sheds much light on the values, roles and working conditions of these journalists in a revealing comparative perspective. It is a model of well-conceptualized and carefully conducted comparative cross-national journalism research.
David H. Weaver, Bloomington, Indiana University, USA
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Journalism and commercialization


Bogusława Dobek-Ostrowska

Analysis of the economic context of the mass media systems and finding a place for journalism and journalists in this environment is the main aim of this chapter. Today there is no doubt that media companies are part of the business world and they should accept the rules operative in this world. For this reason, the answers to these questions could help in this research process:

The research questions provoke the following hypothesis:

8.1 The media in pincers of profits

Until the 2000s, traditional communication research has not dedicated a lot of attention to the economy and economic context of the mass media (Doyle, 2002b:1), which were perceived as a fundamental element of the public and political sphere in the 19th and 20th centuries in Europe. Even if they belonged to private owners (as the print press), public and political interests were the most important and a discussion about economic profits was rarely undertaken. The process of the media industry’s formation was reinforced by a launch of private broadcasting media (or privatization of state TV and radio stations) in the 1970s and 1980s. In the 20th century, it was subsequently marked by the rapid ← 211 | 212 → development of the Internet and easy access to new communication technologies in the 1990s. Croteau and Hoynes claim that the 21st century began with a bang and noted:

“New Technologies are helping to transform the 21st century media...

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