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Productive Foreign Language Skills for an Intercultural World

A Guide (not only) for Teachers


Edited By Michal Paradowski

The past two decades have created quantitatively higher and qualitatively different demands for foreign language skills. Learners’ needs, expectations and contexts of language use have undergone radical and far-reaching transformations. This collection of essays by experienced educators, teacher trainers and researchers from diverse linguistic, cultural and professional settings offers a fresh perspective on the aspects and ways of teaching skills which are crucial to contemporary language instruction, especially at the more advanced stages, but which have oftentimes been unjustly neglected in the classroom. The book discusses issues ranging from approaches to teaching, contexts of instruction, testing and assessment to curriculum development and technology in the classroom.
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Abundance, However, is not Always Desirable: Connectors in Polish EFL Learners’ Texts



The research reported in this chapter investigates the use of connectors in texts written by British native speakers (expert writers and students) and Polish advanced learners of English. The data used in this study were drawn from three existing corpora containing samples of written English: the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE), the Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays (LOCNESS) and the Freiburg-London-Oslo-Bergen (FLOB) Corpus. The quantitative analysis involved a comparison of the frequencies of connector use in each sample. It revealed the highest rate of linking expressions in the Polish essays with the normalized frequency three times higher than in the British expert writing. The average frequency of connector use by native-speaking students was smaller yet close to the Polish rate. The qualitative examination of chosen essays from each sample demonstrated that novice writers (both native and non-native) tended to use linking expressions appropriately, to mark semantic relations between neighbouring clauses, yet in many cases the use of connectors masked a more global problem of the lack of logic in the structure of the argument. Implications for teaching are briefly discussed in the conclusion.

1.  Introduction

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