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«Bis dat, qui cito dat»

«Gegengabe» in Paremiology, Folklore, Language, and Literature – Honoring Wolfgang Mieder on His Seventieth Birthday

Edited By Christian Grandl and Kevin J. McKenna

Bis dat, qui cito dat – never has a proverb more aptly applied to an individual than does this Medieval Latin saying to Wolfgang Mieder. «He gives twice who gives quickly» captures the essence of his entire career, his professional as well as personal life. As a Gegengabe, this international festschrift honors Wolfgang Mieder on the occasion of his seventieth birthday for his contributions to world scholarship and his kindness, generosity, and philanthropy. Seventy-one friends and colleagues from around the world have contributed sixty-six essays in six languages to this volume, representative of the scope and breadth of his impressive scholarship in paremiology, folklore, language, and literature. This gift in return provides new insights from acknowledged experts from various fields of research.
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Judeo-Spanish Haketic Proverbs from Northern Morocco: Sources and Studies*

Tamar Alexander & Yaakov Bentolila

The distinction in the study of proverbs between sources (compilations of proverbs in anthologies, journals, dictionaries, archives, etc.) and studies does not fully correspond to the distinction between documenters and scholars. Scholars often double as documenters, especially those who take a contextual approach and study the proverbs' contexts of use; their studies then double as sources. The distinction between the two categories is thus purely conceptual and methodological.

1The Repertory of Haketic Proverbs

Judeo-Spanish proverbs have been published continuously from the late nineteenth century to the present day. Most of these proverbs have been in Ladino, however, and were documented in the Sephardic diaspora of the formerly Ottoman East.1 Published proverbs in Haketia – the Judeo-Spanish language spoken by the Jewish exiles from Spain who settled in Northern Morocco (Tetuan, Tangiers, Larache, etc.) – have been few and far between.

1.1Compilations of Proverbs

The earliest modern scholar of Haketia, Joseph Benoliel, put together a series of 193 proverbs, numbered and roughly alphabetized, with commentary. The proverbs were published in a series of articles dedicated to the description of Haketia in the journal Boletín de la Real Academia de la Lengua Española between 1926 and 1952. Those articles were compiled in a book, edited by Rafael Benazeraf (Benoliel, 1977). Benoliel wrote the proverbs down from memory, though his recollections were by this point "blurred and...

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