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«Bis dat, qui cito dat»

«Gegengabe» in Paremiology, Folklore, Language, and Literature – Honoring Wolfgang Mieder on His Seventieth Birthday

Edited By Christian Grandl and Kevin J. McKenna

Bis dat, qui cito dat – never has a proverb more aptly applied to an individual than does this Medieval Latin saying to Wolfgang Mieder. «He gives twice who gives quickly» captures the essence of his entire career, his professional as well as personal life. As a Gegengabe, this international festschrift honors Wolfgang Mieder on the occasion of his seventieth birthday for his contributions to world scholarship and his kindness, generosity, and philanthropy. Seventy-one friends and colleagues from around the world have contributed sixty-six essays in six languages to this volume, representative of the scope and breadth of his impressive scholarship in paremiology, folklore, language, and literature. This gift in return provides new insights from acknowledged experts from various fields of research.
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Parent-Child Relationships in French Proverbs

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Peter Barta

1Introduction

In an attempt to spell out various mentalities, we have explored parent-child relationships with a special focus on education, as depicted by proverbs. Research conducted from a sociological, psychological, pedagogical or demographic perspective may yield complementary, or even different, conclusions in this matter. The examination of private documents may also produce statistical data inaccessible through the means of paremiology (e.g. about the age gap between two generations, the number of children, etc.). However, such an inquiry was not the aim of this paper.

2The Corpus of Proverbs Examined

Proverbs have countless definitions. They represent different stages of reflection, diverse points of view and, most of all, they serve different purposes. Since our focus is not a theoretical examination of the genre of proverbs, but rather a study of particular sayings, this paper is based on previous and generally accepted definitions (Arnaud, 1991; Mieder, 2004:2–4).

We relied on a variety of sources: Collections, monographs, studies, monolingual and multilingual dictionaries and the Internet.1 We scanned them according to certain keywords (father, mother, parent, son, daughter, child, education). The meaning of these keywords often had to be specified in the given phrase (e.g. parent 'father or mother' and not 'person belonging to the same family,' fille 'female person related to her parents' and not 'female child or young adult'). We included proverbs related to our topic, but also used to express other ideas, e.g. Lorsque...

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