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«Bis dat, qui cito dat»

«Gegengabe» in Paremiology, Folklore, Language, and Literature – Honoring Wolfgang Mieder on His Seventieth Birthday

Edited By Christian Grandl and Kevin J. McKenna

Bis dat, qui cito dat – never has a proverb more aptly applied to an individual than does this Medieval Latin saying to Wolfgang Mieder. «He gives twice who gives quickly» captures the essence of his entire career, his professional as well as personal life. As a Gegengabe, this international festschrift honors Wolfgang Mieder on the occasion of his seventieth birthday for his contributions to world scholarship and his kindness, generosity, and philanthropy. Seventy-one friends and colleagues from around the world have contributed sixty-six essays in six languages to this volume, representative of the scope and breadth of his impressive scholarship in paremiology, folklore, language, and literature. This gift in return provides new insights from acknowledged experts from various fields of research.
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Floral Symbolism in Creative Metaphors and in Phraseology


Antonio Pamies Bertrán & Daniela Natale


In a lecture on Gongora's Poetic Images, Federico García Lorca stated:

"In order to be alive, a metaphor should fulfill two necessary conditions: form and sphere of activity. A central 'core' and a circular perspective all around it. The core opens itself like a flower, surprisingly unknown, but in its surrounding sphere of light we still find the name of the flower and we recognize its perfume" (221986:vol. 2, 230).1

The poet explains the concept of metaphor by means of another metaphor, in this case, a floral one, and, although he does it in the traditional terms of displacement,2 he anticipates by half a century Paul Ricœur's hermeneutic philosophy (1975) and the modern cognitive theories, when talking about a (sensitive) "core," opening access to a less structured domain that we could understand by means of those "rays of light."

The frequent coincidence among figurative expressions from different languages is often explained by the existence of shared "idealized cognitive models" (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980), "image components" (Baranov & Dobrovol'skij, 1998) and/or "archi-metaphors" (Pamies Bertrán, 2002; Iñesta Mena & Pamies Bertrán, 2002), as potentially universal mental models revealed by language (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980:155). But, in a complementary way, the cross-linguistic divergences are explained by the existence of specific cognitive patterns belonging to a community, and based on "culturally bound" associations of ideas...

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