Wegbereiter der Linguistik neu gelesen
Sprache als méthode analytique. Was uns die Sprach- und Grammatiktheorie von Étienne Bonnot de Condillac heute noch zu sagen hat
Abstract: Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (1714–1780) is known in the history of philosophy as the founder of epistemological sensationism in the empiricist tradition of John Locke. His strong influence on the development of modern linguistic theory, extending far beyond the French Enlightenment, has, however, still not received the attention it deserves. Indeed Condillac’s sensationist theory provided path-breaking ideas for the functional assessment of human language and its use in communication. Recognising the senses systematically as the physiological prerequisite for thinking and speaking was a decisive factor, from which Condillac derived a constitutive role for language in cognitive performance by the use of natural signs. The principle of the “connection of ideas” (liaison des idées) based on linguistic signs ultimately leads Condillac to a new interpretation of syntactic structures which might be even understood as a theory of communication avant la lettre. He was here the perpetrator of original ideas in linguistics as well as recognizing the special character of each individual language, which for him was the result of the interaction of the analytic function of each language according to general principles, and of the génie which becomes manifest in each individual language as its specific feature.
Im sechsten Kapitel seiner Schrift Die heilige Familie oder Kritik der kritischen Kritik von 1845 schreibt Karl MARX die folgenden Bemerkungen zu CONDILLAC:
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