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Essays in Honour of Professor Tadeusz Rachwał


Edited By Agnieszka Pantuchowicz and Slawomir Maslon

Affinities, a collection of essays dedicated to Professor Tadeusz Rachwał, a noted literary historian and cultural critic, pioneer of the present-day cultural studies in Poland, includes texts written by his friends, colleagues, and disciples. As it turns out, even though the topics discussed by the particular authors differ from each other, the volume has a definite focus: literature and culture from the early modern times to the present, approached in ways that combine attention to the textual detail with a broad perspective of social change and the ability to use the hermeneutics of suspicion to see through various received ideas and petrified ideologies. Scholars from Poland, the UK, and the USA have demonstrated that Professor Rachwał attracts minds that unite critical passion and inquisitiveness with expertise in many fields of research in today’s (post-)humanities.
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Black Learning, Land, and Labor in Southern Reconstruction


The Civil War was still well under way when President Abraham Lincoln started thinking about the post-war years. The Union, strengthened by the decisive victory at Gettysburg, had to have some plan of reconciliation, some idea what to do with the Southern states after the war was over. On December 8, 1863, Lincoln issued the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, which offered a pardon to any citizen of the so-called Confederate states who would take a loyalty oath to the Union. Any confiscated property, except for the slaves, would be returned to their owners. There were also citizens of the rebellious states excluded from the pardon, as, for instance, the Confederate Army officers of high rank. The states could be readmitted to the Union when at least ten percent of the inhabitants of those who voted in the 1860 presidential election took the oath of allegiance. The proclamation did not consider in detail the future situation of freedmen, probably because Lincoln hoped that omitting this problem in the document would make his proposal acceptable to the South relatively quickly.

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