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Claim-making and Claim-challenging in English and Polish Linguistic Discourses


Grzegorz Kowalski

The book presents the results of multi-parameter corpus research on Polish and English scientific discourses in the field of Linguistics. Highlighting the relevance of contextual variables (including time, culture, L1 vs. L2 language) in research framework, the study develops a discourse model of the scientific article, integrating paradigmatic, interpersonal and textual dimensions. The model is applied to investigate distribution patterns of linguistic exponents of claim-making and claim-challenging, i.e. two processes fundamental to scientific argumentation. The results show the changes which English and Polish linguistic discourses underwent between 1980 and 2010, and the extent to which English as lingua franca of modern science affects Polish L1 and English L2 linguistic discourses.
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Part 2. Scientific article : discourse perspective


In this chapter I discuss scientific article as a primary genre of intra-group communication in scientific communities, which status is confirmed by the below-quoted scientometric data illustrating an increase in the quantity of journals and articles published in the course of time. Section 2.1 is an overview of the literature pertinent to the constitutive features of the genre, and begins with a historical outline reconstructing its origins, revealing the inextricable interplay between the history of scientific article and evolution of scientific communities. This historical account is followed with a presentation of major contributions focusing on structural aspects of the genre, as well as a review of works applying a functional perspective to its definition. A separate section is devoted to pragmatic research on scientific article, followed with a review of works in the field of contrastive rhetoric and ethnopragmatics, which provided early classifications of scientific styles sensitive to cross-cultural variation.

It is, however, assumed that none of the previously discussed approaches could grasp the actual dynamics of scientific article, including its functional, diachronic, cross-cultural and cross-disciplinary variations, which problem can be overcome by adopting a discourse analytical approach. Consequently, the present work is based on a discourse model of scientific article. Developed from a more general model of discourse presented by Fairclough (2001), the model consists of three concentric dimensions: text – interpersonal dimension – paradigmatic dimension. Text refers to structural and stylistic aspects of a scientific article; the interpersonal dimension to the context of communication in which...

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