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War die «Vertreibung» Unrecht?

Die Umsiedlungsbeschlüsse des Potsdamer Abkommens und ihre Umsetzung in ihrem völkerrechtlichen und historischen Kontext

Edited By Christoph Koch

Vor dem Hintergrund der in der Bundesrepublik anhaltenden Unrechtsdebatte diskutieren die Beiträge des Sammelbandes die völkerrechtliche Zulässigkeit und die historischen Auswirkungen der Beschlüsse des Potsdamer Abkommens vom 2.8.1945. Darin wurde die Aussiedlung der deutschen Bevölkerung in denjenigen Teilen des untergegangenen Reiches vereinbart, die Nachkriegsdeutschland nach den Bestimmungen des Abkommens nicht mehr angehörten. Die Aussiedlungsbeschlüsse betrafen überdies Staatsbürger deutscher Volkszugehörigkeit in den vom Dritten Reich okkupierten Ländern. Die Autoren kommen in der Einschätzung dieser Ereignisse zu unterschiedlichen Ergebnissen. Der Sammelband ist daher nicht zuletzt ein Zeitzeugnis der gesellschaftlichen Aneignung des Gegenstands in den von dem Geschehen betroffenen Ländern.
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Transfer or expulsion? The fate of the German minority in post war Czechoslovakia from the Czechoslovak law point of view: Jan Kuklík

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Jan Kuklík

Particularly on the German side the question of transfer of members of the German minority (or in the terminology of the critics the „expulsion“ and most recently even „ethnic cleansing“) are identified with the so called Beneš’s decrees1. In fact the relationship between the presidential decrees and the transfer is not as simple, as it may seem. The prevailing Czech position is that the transfer of the German minority cannot be judged in isolation from the whole international legal and political context of W(orld) W(ar) II and the post-war period. We should add that the transfer is a question that should only be understood and evaluated through use of the historical approach including the legal standards of that time. From this perspective, the points most frequently stressed are that the transfer was agreed in principle by all three Allied Great Powers and after the war took place on the basis of the Protocol of the Potsdam Conference2 and that it took place in other states as well; the transfer is not therefore an isolated Czechoslovak-German problem. This view of the relationship between the Potsdam Conference and the transfer of German minority has been confirmed by the USA, the Russian Federation and Great Britain at Czech request in 19963.

The idea of the transfer of German minority from Czechoslovakia can be traced right back to the beginning of the home resistance movement with the most radical support for the idea coming...

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