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Chinese Culture in a Cross-Cultural Comparison


Edited By Michael B. Hinner

Chinese culture has a very long and extraordinary tradition. With China’s rapid economic growth and a population of more than one billion people, China has become a very important market for many companies. In order to conduct business in a particular country, it is necessary to also understand the culture of that country. After all, culture influences people’s behavior and communication – also in the world of business. That is why an understanding of a country’s culture is crucial when communicating with all relevant stakeholders including its consumers, businesses, employees, and government authorities. This eighth volume of the Freiberger Beiträge seeks to provide some essential insights into Chinese culture to help improve transactions and relationships with Chinese stakeholders. The contributing authors help explain the various facets of Chinese culture revolving around communication, business negotiations, and conflict management.
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Sino-Western Business Negotiator Credibility, Expectancy, and Culture Perceived in the Eyes of the Counterparts: A Johari Window Comparison


By Vivian C. Sheer

Vivian C. Sheer points out that after China has become a major international business player, much has been published on negotiating with Chinese business people. Most of this literature has been prescriptive and is from a Western perspective without considering the Chinese viewpoint. That is why Sheer decides to take a closer look at this perspective seeking to understand negotiator credibility and expectancy from both a Chinese and a Western perspective.

Sheer notes that the influences of national culture can be categorized into observable social factors (e.g. language and communication etiquette), business practices (e.g. professionalism and management exercises), political environment, business values (e.g. pragmatism, materialism, and corporate image orientation), and social values (e.g. Confucianism and individualism).

Individual actors in intercultural business negotiations form expectations about the counterpart they are about to meet, Sheer observes. Expectancies include enduring patterns of anticipated communication content and style, nonverbal behaviors, appearance, social skills, and language styles. Expectancies also include presumptions about one’s counterpart’s professionalism, e.g. work ethics and professional competence. Prior experience can have an influence on expectancy. If one has had little experience with the culture of one’s counterpart, then stereotypes can have an influence on one’s expectancy. And expectancy can also shape the process and outcome of an intercultural interaction, the author notes.

Credibility is an important component of negotiations because credibility can influence persuasion. Credibility includes qualification, trust, and dynamism. But the definition of credibility is influenced...

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