In this book two novel utilisations of volatile compounds in the field of Pharmaceutical Chemistry are presented. First, volatile degradation products of lipids are applied to the characterisation of vegetable fats and oils and the detection of their adulteration. Unfortunately, routine methods for quality control of fatty plant oils and fats often do not provide satisfying results. Analysis of the volatile compounds of these fats and oils can be a remedy, as is shown for many samples in this book. Furthermore, the study deals with the application of eco-friendly and harmless volatile compounds (terpenes and essential oils) for the reduction of airborne microbes in rooms, which is an innovative alternative to established, partly harmful room-disinfectants.