In recent years the study of consciousness has gained considerable impulse through interdisciplinary approaches. Modulation and transformation of consciousness have been deployed for tens of thousands of years to obtain knowledge and to enhance well-being and health. In many societies, techniques based on exceptional states of consciousness have been used to maintain ecological equilibrium. The volume deals with historic, social, linguistic, philosophical, psychological, physiological, aesthetic, and creative issues of consciousness research. According to the integrative endeavours of the authors a variety of methods were applied; mostly, not only etic, but also emic perceptions were considered. The work of shamans, artists, and psychotherapists constitutes the main content of this volume, exploring different techniques for the induction of altered states of consciousness.