After two successful meetings on the ecological implications of GM-crop cultivation in 2008 and 2010, the authors felt encouraged to carry out a follow-up conference in 2012. GMLS III highlights recent scientific developments in the analysis of risks in the agricultural use of genetically modified plants. While in some countries a GM-based agriculture has been largely established, other regions of the world continue cultivation of conventional varieties only. This acknowledges a persistent reservation of the public towards GMO products. The overall need of an emphasis in independent studies becomes continuously more obvious. Experts from Europe, United States, Ghana and Argentina report their scientific results and experience with ecological, socio-economical and administrative implications.