For some time already, a discourse within the field of Translation Studies has increasingly focused on the translator, his/her translation properties and mental processes resulting from their application. Recent years and advances in technology have opened up many possibilities of gaining a deeper insight into these processes. This publication presents the theoretical foundations, the results of scientific experiments, and a broad range of questions to be asked and answered by eye-tracking supported translation studies. The texts have been arranged into two thematic parts. The first part consists of texts dedicated to the theoretical foundations of Translation Studies-oriented eye-tracking research. The second part includes texts discussing the results of the experiments that were carried out.