This book presents insights and understandings on the issue of identities and modernizations, contributed mainly by theoreticians from China and scholars from Central and Eastern European countries. Both regions have followed a similar path towards modernization until the second half of the twentieth century. The past experience in both regions leads to two crucial, yet paradoxical conclusions: Firstly, no modernization of economy, technology or science is possible without a prior modernization of the collective identity, i.e. of culture, tradition, religion and spirituality in general. Secondly, effective and long-term modernization cannot be achieved with disregard for tradition, culture, religion and spirituality. The theory of dispersed modernity is promoted.