Several topics in contemporary educational research in Estonia have been covered in this collection. The professional identities of vocational teachers have been studied in relation to their new professional roles. Important differences in lesson planning have been found between novice and experienced teachers. A longitudinal study of the development of language competence revealed that it is important to provide students with tasks suited to their cognitive level. The metacognitive learning strategy summarizing alone explained 33% of the variation in the reading results of the 2009 PISA study between schools in Estonia. Student argumentation in state exam compositions showed differences on the basis of gender and school type.