The concept of physical fitness is predominantly seen as condition. In this book a concept for «New Physical Fitness», namely «Motor Competence» is developed with four major aspects: sensory abilities, motor abilities/condition, motor abilities/coordination and body experience. First, historical, comparative, and status quo perspectives for physical fitness are analyzed. The future perspective is related to: aims, content, teaching methods and evaluation in regard to physical fitness presented in a new conceptual framework. Examples of existing physical fitness tests and proposals how to evaluate the «Motor Competence» are also included in this book. Thus the interested public is offered a comprehensive guide in order to develop motor competence in a broader and more holistic way, which is especially important for target groups often neglected in regard to motor competence like young children, handicapped people and seniors as well as for application in countries with largely different socio-economic and geographic-climatic background.