Conceptions of Islamic Education: Pedagogical Framings argues that madāris (Muslim schools) cannot exclusively be held responsible for the cultivation of extremism. Islamic education can most appropriately be framed according to three interrelated concepts: tarbiyyah (rearing or nurturing), ta‘līm (learning/ instruction), and ta’dīb (good action). These three phenomena are explored along the lines of a minimalist-maximalist continuum that guides practices and institutions differently. A minimalist understanding of Islamic education does not necessarily produce uncritical citizens, but a maximalist understanding engenders an ethical democratic community and cosmopolitan beings concerned about their responsibility towards others. By looking specifically at South African Muslim schools, Conceptions of Islamic Education undermines the misconception that such schools perpetuate Islamic radicalism.