This volume of Aletheia is dedicated to the Polish philosopher Roman Ingarden. A lengthy and - until now - untranslated text on the «Foundations of the Theory of Knowledge» from Roman Ingarden's works in Polish is here translated for the first time into a western European language. This English translation treats Ingarden's considerations on the phenomenology of the essence of cognitive experience and its correlate. In the same volume Fritz Wenisch contributes a foundational investigation concerning insight and objective necessity, in which informative and necessarily true judgments are contrasted with those that are not informative. By this is Kant's distinction between synthetic and analytic a priori judgments discussed in a fundamental way and critically illuminated.
In the discussion section are found contributions from G. Kalinowski and T. Styczen about the problem of the philosophical position of Karol Wojtyla within Polish personalism and Thomism. Also included are presentations by Strozewski about Roman Ingarden's program in aesthetics, by A. Poltawski on freedom and dignity in the work of Karol Wojtyla, as well as comments by D. Fedoryka on subjectivity and philosophy, by John Crosby on the use of texts in the teaching of philosophy in relation to a philosophy of the return to things themselves, and a contribution by M. Garcia-Baro on the nature of empirical laws. With the exception of this last contribution, all articles in this volume are published in English. In this fourth volume, which now for the first time is appearing as an annual with Peter Lang, the intention of a realistic philosophy and phenomenology, which earlier volumes had evidenced, is fostered still further.