This book provides an empirical analysis rather than a theoretical framework of refugee situations during the Cold War. It focuses on potential refugee-producing situations with a view to prevent occurances where refugees are exploited as a weapon in political strife. In order to forestall the violation of individual rights, the book proposes measures to prevent refugee situations from arising, however, not to prevent persecuted individuals from seeking protection. This second edition shows in its revised parts that the proposals for prevention, including on mediation, early warning, and information-sharing are all being implemented. Developments since the publication of the first edition have entirely changed the international political climate. Prevention has moved to the top of the agenda of the United Nations and individual states alike. Progress achieved in the area of human rights and political climate. Prevention has moved to the top of the agenda of the United Nations and indivivual states alike. Progress achieved in the area of human rights and development, humanitarian assistance and intervention, peacekeeping and peacemaking offer new possibilities and challenges for prevention and peace. The international community should move forcefully now while almost global cooperation is possible to institutionalize new prevention and intervention approaches to save lives and to prevent future abuses of human rights and forced population displacement. The Cold War may have finished but war, internal and crossborder, is still alive.