Technology in the world today has contributed to promote organisational competitiveness and national development. But most developing countries have not substantially benefited from science and technology, hence their underdevelopment and poverty. They could not harness and manage their scientific and technological innovations and use their human and material resources to meet basic needs of their people, reduce socio-economic inequalities, create employment opportunities and improve national security. The achievement of these is considered in this book to be dependent on provisions of conducive environments for effective human resource management for scientific and technological innovations. Human resource management concepts and practices were used to evolve frameworks and processes for the generation, acquisition, adoption, and transfer of technology, depending on the objectives of different countries and organisations.