The Kosovo crisis, the fourth Yugoslav war in less than a decade, was a turning point for Europe. Once more Europe witnessed the spectre of ethnic cleansing and bloody conflict on its doorstep. This study, written by eight authors from different parts of the continent, gives an account of the crisis and the efforts to restore order, maintain peace and rebuild the region afterwards. Based on the complex national, ethnic and religious issues in the former Yugoslavia, it analyses the background of the conflict, and then focuses on the short and long-term implications for the European Union. The shortcomings of the EU’s performance before and during the crisis are examined (the diplomatic process, the role of Russia and the refugee crisis), then the efforts of the EU in the post-crisis reconstruction process are looked at (KFOR, Stability Pact) before focusing on implications for EU enlargement, transatlantic relations, Russia and specifically for the developing foreign policy and crisis management capacity of the Union after the meetings of Cologne, Helsinki and Feira, and for the present and future role of the EU in south-eastern Europe.