This study documents and analyses the expectations of political elites about Scotland’s role in a changing European Union. Based on 60 interviews with members of civil society, government officials, and politicians that were conducted during the key months preceding the first elections to the new Scottish Parliament, the book considers two key questions. First, how do elites expect the Scottish Executive to influence European policy-making? Second, how do elites understand the operation of governance under new constitutional arrangements? The study draws from the conceptual framework of Multi-Level Governance, using an actor-centred approach to obtain a nuanced understanding of perceptions. Many elites conclude that devolution is unlikely to affect significantly Scottish involvement in European policy-making. They do believe, however, that it can change the domestic legislative process in accordance with new forms of governance. This approach – which includes the principles of partnership, participation, and co-operation – could also guide Scotland’s relationships with the UK and Europe.