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Collaboration and Resistance During the Holocaust

Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania

David Gaunt, Paul Levine and Laura Palosuo

This book assembles contributions from the conference «Focus Reichskommissariat Ostland – Collaboration and Resistance during the Holocaust» which took place in Stockholm and Uppsala in April 2002. It presents new perspectives based on new archival sources and oral historiography of the Holocaust during the German occupation of the Baltic countries and part of Belarus: the Reichskommissariat Ostland. Acclaimed historians and new researchers from Belarus, Estonia, Germany, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden and the USA focus on the issues of collaboration with or resistance to the Nazis and their extermination policy. The studies of collaboration concern that of the German civilian administration as well as the native local «self-defence» administration in the occupied countries, particularly in Latvia and Lithuania. Several studies deal with resistance in the ghettos, especially Minsk ghetto, and among the partisans in the forests of Belarus and Lithuania.
This book has distinctive relevance in bringing together a large amount of archival research done during the period since the fall of the Soviet Union.
Contents: David Gaunt/Paul A. Levine: Introduction – Robert Bohn: Kollaboration und deutsche Mobilisierungsbemühungen im RK Ostland. Grundsätzliche Überlegungen – Uwe Danker: Die ‘Zivilverwaltung’ des Reichskommissariats Ostland und der Holocaust: Wahrnehmung, Rolle und ‘Verarbeitung’ – Sebastian Lehmann: NS-Parteifunktionäre aus Schleswig-Holstein im Ostland. Zum Quellenwert von Akten der Spruchgerichte in der Britischen Besatzungszone für die Rolle der Zivilverwaltung im Reichskommissariat Ostland – Jörg Hackmann: Concepts of German Nationalities Policy in Eastern Europe during the Second World War: The case of Werner Hasselblatt – Antonijs Zunda: Collaboration in German-Occupied Latvia: Assessments of the Historical Literature – Matthew Kott: The Portrayal of Soviet Atrocities in the Nazi-controlled Latvian-language Press and the First Wave of Antisemitic Violence in Riga, July-August 1941 – Karlis Kangeris: Die nationalsozialistischen Pläne und Propagandamassnahmen im Generalbezirk Lettland 1941-1942 – Andrew Ezergailis: ‘Neighbors’ Did Not Kill Jews! – Martin Dean: Microcosm: Collaboration and Resistance during the Holocaust in the Mir Rayon of Belarus, 1941-1944 – Evgenij Rozenblat: Belarus: Specific Features of the Region’s Jewish Collaboration and Resistance – Arūnas Bubnys: The Holocaust in the Lithuanian Province in 1941: The Kaunas District – Saulius Sužiedėlis: Foreign Saviors, Native Disciples: Perspectives on Collaboration in Lithuania, 1940-1945 – Aya Ben-Naftali: Collaboration and Resistance: The Ninth Fort as a Test Case – Anton Weiss-Wendt: Extermination of the Gypsies in Estonia during World War II – Meelis Maripuu: Kollaboration und Widerstand in Estland 1940-1944 – Joachim Braun: Music as Resistance, Music as Survival – Barbara Epstein: Allies in Resistance: Jews and Belarussians in German-Occupied Minsk – Sarunas Liekis: Jewish Partisans and Soviet Resistance in Lithuania – Anika Walke: Biographien jüdischer Überlebender in der Sowjetunion - Flucht, Widerstand und (Nicht-) Anerkennung. Überlegungen zum Widerstandsbegriff.