This book examines the contribution made by Joaquim Nabuco (1849-1910) to political thought in Brazil during the Belle Epoque (1888-1910). Nabuco was once leader of the abolitionist cause in Brazil and turned his attention after the abolition of slavery in 1888 to saving the monarchy. This study traces Nabuco’s views on the monarchic institution in Brazil, considering first the origins of his (liberal) monarchist beliefs and his ideas on how the institution should adapt to halt the threat of republicanism before 1889. It concentrates on the first decade of the Republic and the ways in which Nabuco presented a challenge to the new regime. By examining the impact of his views on the State’s domestic and international roles, the book reveals Nabuco’s contribution to nation-building in late-nineteenth-century Brazil.