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Perspectives on Twentieth-Century Pharmaceuticals

Viviane Quirke and Judy Slinn

One of the most striking features of the twentieth century has been the rapid growth of the pharmaceutical industry and the large increases in the use and consumption of its products. This trend began in the first half of the century, but accelerated most sharply after the Second World War, when the creation of national systems of healthcare created mass markets for drugs. The industry then assumed a major economic, social and political significance, and became one of the most highly regulated sectors of the economy, attracting the attention of industry analysts as well as academics. This volume brings together a collection of papers exploring and reflecting upon some of the significant strands in the current studies of pharmaceuticals in the twentieth century. They touch upon many of the issues that are matters of concern and debate today, and their international and multidisciplinary approaches enrich our understanding of an object, of an industry, and of a process that are at the heart of our highly medicalized contemporary societies.
Contents: Viviane Quirke/Judy Slinn: Perspectives on Twentieth-Century Pharmaceuticals: an Introduction – Jonathan Simon/ Axel C. Hüntelmann: Two Models for Production and Regulation: the diphtheria serum in Germany and France – Frank Huisman: Struggling for the Market: strategies of Dutch pharmaceutical companies, 1880-1940 – María Jesús Santesmases: Distributing Penicillin: the clinic, the hero and industrial production in Spain, 1943-1952 – Marion A. Hulverscheidt: The Scientist-Entrepreneur or Financing in Pharmaceutical Research: a portrait of the malariologist Werner Schulemann, 1888-1975 – Cay-Rüdiger Prüll: Scientists, Doctors and Drug Development: the history of Raymond P. Ahlquist’s receptor theory, 1948-1988 – Claude Richard/Marie-Therese Lussier: Proposition of a Model for the Discussion of Medications during Medical Encounters – Tony Corley: Twentieth-Century American Contributions to the Growth of the Beecham Enterprise – Sergio Sismondo: Linking Research and Marketing, a Pharmaceutical Innovation – Manon Niquette/William J. Buxton: Relieving Twentieth-Century Excesses: the socialization of antacid and laxative uses through advertising – John P. Swann: Reducing with Dinitrophenol: self-medication and the challenge of regulating a dangerous pharmaceutical before the US Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act – Dominique A. Tobbell: Charitable Innovations: the political economy of thalassemia research and drug development in the United States, 1960-2000 – Heather Munro Prescott: Imperfect Methods and Uncertain Choices: the regulation and marketing of emergency contraception in the United States – Beat Bächi: Producing Ascorbic Acid: how microbes transformed the pharmaceutical company Hoffmann-la Roche, 1933-1953 – Michael Bürgi/Bruno J. Strasser: Pharma in Transition: new approaches to drug development at F. Hoffmann-la Roche & Co, 1960-1980 – Anne-Laure Saives/Mehran Ebrahimi/Robert H. Desmarteau (with the collaboration of Catherine Garnier): Knowledge Creation Dynamics and the Growth of Biotech Firms in Quebec.