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The Ford Foundation and Europe (1950's-1970's)

Cross-fertilization of Learning in Social Science and Management


Giuliana Gemelli

This book is the first serious effort to view comprehensively what the Ford Foundation thought it should do about Europe over the period 1950-1970. And what it effectively did. It looks both at general trends in that policy and at strategic impetus transmitted by the Foundation to important sectors of intellectual, scientific and economic life.
It falls into two parts both introduced by long chapters and followed by case studies. The contributors analyze the various and complex effects of «cross-fertilization» of learning on the two sides of the Atlantic and reveal that the Ford Foundation did not operate through transplant but mainly as a translator: it favored the strengthening of selective appropriations of American patterns rather than a process of mechanical imitation. The dominant orientation was the internationalization of scholarship and education rather than simply «Americanization». This allows one to question the limits of concentrating exclusively on the notion of Americanization when the forms of cultural transfer are considered.
Contents: Giuliana Gemelli: Preface - F. X. Sutton: The Ford Foundation and Europe: Ambitions and Ambivalences - V. R. Berghahn: Shepard Stone and the Ford Foundation - G. Gemelli: The Origins of the Olivetti Foundation and the Development of Social and Political Sciences in Italy during the Sixties - P. Gremion: The Partnership between the Ford Foundation and the Congress for Cultural Freedom in Europe - G. Gemelli: From Imitation to Competitive-Cooperation: The Ford Foundation and Management Education in Western and Eastern Europe (1950's-1970's) - G. Gemelli/B. Rodenstock: German Obstinacy and its Historical Variations - N. Tiratsoo: Americanization Resisted? US and Indigenous Influences on the Birth of the First British Schools - R. P. Amdam: Productivity and Management Education: The Nordic Connections - T. Hubert/R. Talpaert/G. Van Dyck: Belgium: The Dynamics of European Networks - R. Georis: Foundations' Culture in Europe.