This book contains 12 papers which have been presented at the 15th International Summer Course on National Security at the University of Kiel in 1995. The course focused on the international system five years after the fall of the Berlin Wall. This event has ended the socalled post-war period. The new era, however, will not lead to eternal peace - as events in former Yugoslavia and parts of the former Soviet Union are demonstrating daily. New conflicts, risks, threats, uncertainties will occur, and new strategies will be required. This book tries to analyze the new international system and attempts to give first answers on future challenges.