This volume analyses rising income disparities in the agricultural sector of Thailand with the aim to find income determining factors. The empirical analysis of single household income data shows that, surprisingly, income is not determined by factors like the size of holding, regional location or farm type. Only land productivity and off-farm income are found to strongly determine the household's economic position. Based on this result, the study analyses and discusses selected policy measures that would positively influence these two factors. This study concludes that the more these policies are integrated into a consistent and comprehensive 'equity cum growth' development strategy, the more likely they are to further growth and distribution at the same time.