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Balanced Thinking

An Educational Perspective for 2000+ on the Basis of a Cross-cultural German/Japanese Study

Gerhard Schaefer and Ryoei Yoshioka

This book, initiated by a comparative empirical study on ways of thinking in samples of German and Japanese students, picks up the old question of decision-making between contradicting needs. It analyses – stimulated by striking differences found in the way how the two populations treated the «contradiction problem» – the general problem of contradiction on the background of a «polarity approach» to life. On this background either/or decisions, although possibly scientifically correct and pushed forward under time pressure, may not be appropriate to the actual situation of life and thus be «wrong». Either/or, neither/nor, and even as-well-as reactions should be regarded as relevant in contradictory situations. This free option is called Balanced Thinking.
Contents: Balanced thinking – Balanced attitude – Polarity of life – Polarities of thinking – Point between – Contradiction problem – Me (ego) – TIMSS – Free associations – Free definitions – Aspectizing test – Multiple-choice – Semantic differential.