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Middle Knowledge

Theory and Applications


William Hasker, Eef Dekker and David Basinger

«God only knows what I’d be without you», sang the Beach Boys in 1966. A certain item of knowledge is here attributed to God – knowledge, so it is said, that no-one else possesses. Some say that this knowledge behaves like that of a super-psychologist, while others say that it is «middle knowledge» – God knows what would have become of the singer in a non-actual world, given certain free decisions of others. This book collects all major contributions to the question whether middle knowledge is possible at all, and if so, what help it would be in spelling out, for example, the doctrine of divine providence.
Contents: William Hasker, David Basinger, Eef Dekker: Introduction – Luis de Molina: Middle Knowledge: The Classic Statement – Alfred J. Freddoso: Objections to Molinism, and Replies – Robert M. Adams: Middle Knowledge and the Problem of Evil – Alvin Plantinga: A Response to Adams’ Arguments – Edward J. Wierenga: The No Grounds Objection – William Hasker: A Refutation of Middle Knowledge – Thomas P. Flint: Hasker’s Attack on Middle Knowledge – David P. Hunt: Middle Knowledge: The ‘Foreknowledge Defense’ – Robert M. Adams: An anti-Molinist Argument – William L. Craig: Robert Adams’s New Anti-Molinist Argument – William Hasker: Explanatory Priority: Transitive and Unequivocal. A Reply to William Craig – Richard Gaskin: Conditionals of Freedom and Middle Knowledge – Hugh Rice: On Middle Knowledge – William Hasker: Middle Knowledge: A Refutation Revisited – David Basinger: Middle Knowledge and Classical Christian Thought – Alvin Plantinga: Middle Knowledge and the Free Will Defense – Robert M. Adams: The Concrete Logical Problem of Evil – Alvin Plantinga: A Response to Adams’ Criticism – William L. Craig: ‘No Other Name’: A Middle Knowledge Perspective on the Exclusivity of Salvation Through Christ – David P. Hunt: Middle Knowledge and the Soteriological Problem of Evil – Jerry L. Walls: Is Molinism as Bad as Calvinism? – Thomas P. Flint: Prophecy, Freedom and Middle Knowledge.