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Russian Challenges

Between Freedom and Energy


Edited By Galina Michaleva and Andrey Ryabov

This book analyses the influence that oil and gas have on various sides of Russia’s contemporary internal and foreign policy. On the one hand, the factor oil and gas enabled the ruling elite to strengthen the state institutions and to stabilize Russia’s political and social system after decades of instability. Relying on the new economic opportunities contributed to the growth of revenues of the mass sections of population, and owing to the increased export of natural fuel resources Russia significantly strengthened its influence on international politics. But on the other hand, authoritarian tendencies increased in politics. The contributions of this book inquire into the gradually declining role of independent actors in relation to the government, and the increasing authority of the elites in power who continue to represent their corporate interests as being national ones.
Galina Michaleva is the executive secretary of the political committee of the party «Yabloko», chairwoman of the organization of women of the «Yabloko» and professor at the History, Political Science and Law Department in the Russian State University for the Humanities. She is author of more than 100 books and scientific publications in Russian, English and German.
Andrey Ryabov is scholar-in-residence of the Carnegie Moscow Center, expert on Russian politics at Gorbachev Foundation, and Editor-in-chief of the academic journal «World Economy and International Relations».