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Logic: Mathematics, Language, Computer Science and Philosophy

Volume I - Logic: Mathematics, Language and Philosophy

H.C.M. de Swart

Depending on what one means by the main connective of logic, the «if ..., then ... », several systems of logic result: classic and modal logics, intuitionistic logic or relevance logic. This book presents the underlying ideas, the syntax and the semantics of these logics. Soundness and completeness are shown constructively and in a uniform way. Attention is paid to the interdisciplinary role of logic: its embedding in the foundations of mathematics and its intimate connection with philosophy, in particular the philosophy of language. Set theory is presented both as a conditio sine qua non for logic and as a interesting exact ontology. The study of infinite sets yields perplexing results. Formalization of informal number theory results in formal number theory; Gödel's incompleteness is treated. At appropriate places attention is paid to paradoxes, intuitionism, conditionals, the historical development of logic, to logic programming and automated theorem proving for classical logic.
Contents: Classical logic, intuitionistic logic, intensional logics, relevance logic: soundness, completeness and (un)decidability - Set theory - Philosophy of language, paradoxes - Conditionals - Intuitionism - Formal mumber theory, incompleteness - Knowledge representation and prolog, automated theorem proving.