Can the causes of the divisions of the Presbyterian Church in Korea be identified? The author goes back to the roots in mission history and in North American Presbyterian controversies. The Japanese Shinto pressure adds to the problems. The result is a history of divisions. Up to now researchers have looked for non-theological factors as causes. The author takes a radical look, where radical means going to the root, i.e. the life giving power centre of the church. He describes the role of preaching and the way the sacraments are used - starting from the conviction that the means of grace are the centre of any true church.