Migration is a phenomenon of particular Public Health importance. Since 1990, almost two million ethnic Germans (Aussiedler) have migrated from the former Soviet Union to Germany. The health of migrants is determined by a wide variety of factors. The author conducted a large cohort study to assess the Aussiedler‘s post-migration mortality from cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in Germany. Mortality was compared to that of the German population and the influence of several potential risk factors on mortality levels was determined in multivariate analyses. Surprisingly, the results showed a lower cardiovascular mortality among Aussiedler compared to the German population. Possible mechanisms are discussed together with recommendations for future research and policy.