Community health insurance (CHI) has recently been valued as a promising health financing alternative for low and middle income countries. Field experience, however, demonstrates that CHI does not live up to its expectations, mainly because of the widespread problem of low enrolment, meaning that too few people choose to join emerging CHI schemes. This book presents a scientific investigation into the decision to enrol in CHI in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Specifically, through the joint application of quantitative and qualitative methods of analysis, the study explores the experience of one emerging scheme in Burkina Faso. On this basis, specific recommendations for future research and a series of detailed policy guidelines are proposed to inform and reform the implementation of CHI in Burkina Faso as well as elsewhere in SSA.