Genetically modified organisms (GMO) are traded as staple crops on the world market. The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety gives sovereign rights to each country to implement its own regulatory regime to protect their landscapes and agricultural heritage. Data on the receiving environment for countries in Africa are limited. How would it be possible to maintain the options of agriculture with or without GMO, and organic farming? Decisions require not only lab-testing of crops but also data on the different agricultural structures, field sizes, and socioeconomic conditions. This book presents an introduction into the topic, experiences from biosafety research executed in the EU and most important, insight into small-scale African agriculture that is of highest relevance for food security of a population majority. The data substantiates, that crop purity as a condition to maintain cultivation options and access export markets require highest attention and solutions that still have to be found.