Theories of Social Action in Black Literature is a comparative analysis of exemplary literature that conveys the religious and secular basis of social action among Blacks during the first half of the twentieth century. The study compares and contrasts the themes of hopelessness and despair in the works of selected black novelists with the more optimistic tone of the leaders of social action movements. In the case of the novelists, the purpose is to show from an analysis of prototypical tragic literature the prominence of physical and spiritual suffering that results from the deus absconditus of Old Testament and selected black fiction. In particular, this section focuses on the «Samson Syndrom» as the historical and religious representation of negative self-assertion that has as its intent the transformation of a culturally repressive society. The activists serve both individually and collectively to gain freedom. Their actions may be characterized as transcending, transforming, or accommodating. The aim of the analysis of both individual and collective leadership styles is to show the contrast in means and goals between the artists and the activists.