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Exiles and Ironists

Essays on the Kinship of Heine and Laforgue

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Prof. Ursula Franklin

This study examines the literary and intellectual kinship between Heinrich Heine, who wrote most of his mature work in France, and Jules Laforgue, who wrote most of his poetry and prose in Germany. Both expatriate poets mark the end of literary traditions which they revolutionized: Heine transformed German Romantic, Laforgue French Symbolist poetry; and their innovative voices were to have repercussions far beyond their own times and national traditions.
Since Laforgue himself repeatedly paid tribute to his German master, the intertextual link between the poets has become a critical commonplace. And though there are numerous books on Heine's influence on French poets, and though most of Laforgue's commentators mention Heine, there exists to date no documented comparative study on Heine and Laforgue. These essays, a first thorough, comparative examination, address themselves to filling the gap.

«This study makes a significant connection between two major issues - exile and irony - of vital interest to the later twentieth century. Closely argued, subtle, and full of sensitive insight, it provides a refreshing context in which to read two important poets still influential today.» (Lilian R. Furst, Marcel Bataillion Professor of Comparative Literature The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) «We are fortunate to have yet another fascinating and expertly researched volume by Ursula Franklin. ...most informative and highly recommended volume.» (Bettina L. Knapp, Nineteenth Century French Studies)
«Professor Ursula Franklin explores in this attractive study ... the multiple parallels in experience, sensibility, and expression found in the poetry and prose of Heinrich Heine and Jules Laforgue. The relationship between the two, though noted earlier, had never before been examined so systematically.» (Christopher Smith, Literary Research-Recherche littéraire)