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Panentheism in Hartshorne and Tillich

A Creative Synthesis


David Nikkel

This work in philosophical theology breaks new ground by painstakingly arguing that the concept of panentheism (literally, «all øis! in God») is crucial for understanding Paul Tillich's doctrine of God, including his famous claim that «God is not a being». Distinguishing between an active and passive aspect of God in panentheism, this book breaks further ground by establishing that self-avowed panentheist Charles Hartshorne, who contradictorily adopted Whitehead's notion of causality, is in fact not panentheistic with respect to the active aspect of divine power. Avoiding the pitfalls of Hartshorne regarding the active aspect and Tillich regarding the passive aspect, this study offers a creative synthesis, a full-fledged panentheism that attempts to do justice to divine receptivity, suffering, and temporality and to divine sovereignty, majesty, and ultimacy.